Labeled Faces in the Wild Home


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Welcome to Labeled Faces in the Wild, a database of face photographs designed for studying the problem of unconstrained face recognition. The data set contains more than 13,000 images of faces collected from the web. Each face has been labeled with the name of the person pictured. 1680 of the people pictured have two or more distinct photos in the data set. The only constraint on these faces is that they were detected by the Viola-Jones face detector. More details can be found in the technical report below.

There are now four different sets of LFW images including the original and three different types of "aligned" images. The aligned images include "funneled images" (ICCV 2007), LFW-a, which uses an unpublished method of alignment, and "deep funneled" images (NIPS 2012). Among these, LFW-a and the deep funneled images produce superior results for most face verification algorithms over the original images and over the funneled images (ICCV 2007).

Related:

LFW Deep Funneled Images.

LFW attributes file (see Attribute and Simile Classifiers for Face Verification, Kumar et al.).

Face Detection Data set and Benchmark (FDDB), our new database for face detection research.

Faces in Real-Life Images workshop at the European Conference on Computer Vision 2008, run by Erik Learned-Miller, Andras Ferencz, and Frederic Jurie.
last updated: 2014/03/17 15:00 EDT
change log
Mailing list:
If you wish to receive announcements regarding any changes made to the LFW database, please send email to majordomo@cs.umass.edu with the message body: "subscribe lfw" on a single line.
Explore the database:
Download the database:
Training, Validation, and Testing:
View 1:
For development purposes, we recommend using the below training/testing split, which was generated randomly and independently of the splits for 10-fold cross validation, to avoid unfairly overfitting to the sets above during development. For instance, these sets may be viewed as a model selection set and a validation set. See the tech report below for more details.

Explore the sets: [training][test]
Download the sets: pairsDevTrain.txt, pairsDevTest.txt, peopleDevTrain.txt, peopleDevTest.txt

View 2:
As a benchmark for comparison, we suggest reporting performance as 10-fold cross validation using splits we have randomly generated.

Explore the sets: [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]
Download the sets: pairs.txt, people.txt

For information on the file formats, please refer to the README above.
For details on how the sets were created, please refer to the tech report below.
Results:
Accuracy and ROC curves for various methods available on results page.
Information:
  • 13233 images
  • 5749 people
  • 1680 people with two or more images
Errata:
The following is a list of known errors in LFW. Due to the small number of such errors, the database will be left as is (without corrections) to avoid confusion.

It is important that users of the database provide their algorithms with the database as is, i.e. without correcting the errors below, since previous results published for the database did not have the advantage of correcting for these errors.

Currently, there are three incorrectly labeled matched pairs in View 2. While we do not believe this should have a significant effect on accuracy, we do encourage researchers to be aware of these errors when producing any visualizations (e.g. matched pairs most confidently predicted as mismatched, as the matched pair may actually be mismatched).

Note: unless stated otherwise below, any error in a matched pair will mean that the label ("matched") is wrong. Any error in a mismatched pair, even with the person having the wrong identity, will generally be correct (the label of "mismatched" will still be correct).

  • Recep_Tayyip_Erdogan_0004 is incorrect (it is an image of Abdullah Gul):
    person image

    This image appears only in one matched pair in the training set of View 1:
    person image
    Recep Tayyip Erdogan
    , 2
    person image
    Recep Tayyip Erdogan
    , 4

  • Anja_Paerson_0001 is incorrect (it is an image of Janica Kostelic):
    person image

    This image does not appear in a matched or mismatched pair, in either view.

  • Janica_Kostelic_0001 is incorrect (it is an image of Anja Paerson):
    person image

    This image appears in one matched pair in the test set of View 1, and the same matched pair and one mismatched pair (with Don_Carcieri_0001) in fold 1 of View 2:
    person image
    Janica Kostelic
    , 1
    person image
    Janica Kostelic
    , 2

  • Bart_Hendricks_0001 is incorrect (it is a duplicate image of Ricky_Ray_0001):
    person image

    This image appears in two mismatched pairs in the training set of View 1, and one mismatched pair in fold 2 of View 2. (None of the mismatched pairs are with Ricky_Ray.)

  • Carlos_Beltran_0001 is incorrect (it is a duplicate image of Raul_Ibanez_0001):
    person image

    This image appears in one mismatched pair in the test set of View 1, and one mismatched pair in fold 5 of View 2. (None of the mismatched pairs are with Raul_Ibanez.)

  • Emmy_Rossum_0001 is incorrect (it is a duplicate image of Eva_Amurri_0001):
    person image

    This image appears in one mismatched pair in the test set of View 1 (the mismatched pair is not with Eva_Amurri).

  • Michael_Schumacher_0008 is incorrect (it is an image of Rubens Barrichello):
    person image

    This image does not appear in a matched or mismatched pair, in either view.

  • Mahmoud_Abbas_0012 is incorrect (it is an image of Hamad Bin Isa al-Khalifa):
    person image

    This image does not appear in a matched or mismatched pair, in either view.

  • Jim_OBrien contains two distinct persons. Specifically, Jim_OBrien_0001 is a different person from Jim_OBrien_0002, Jim_OBrien_0003.

    This leads to an error in two matched pairs (0001 with 0002; 0001 with 0003) in the training set of View 1, and fold 5 of View 2:
    person image
    Jim OBrien
    , 1
    person image
    Jim OBrien
    , 2
    person image
    Jim OBrien
    , 1
    person image
    Jim OBrien
    , 3


  • John_Gruden_0001 is an incorrect spelling of Jon_Gruden.
    person image

    This image appears in a mismatched pair in fold 3 of View 2 (not with Jon_Gruden).
Reference:
Please cite as:
Gary B. Huang, Manu Ramesh, Tamara Berg, and Erik Learned-Miller.
Labeled Faces in the Wild: A Database for Studying Face Recognition in Unconstrained Environments.
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Technical Report 07-49, October, 2007.
[pdf]

BibTeX entry:
@TechReport{LFWTech,
  author =       {Gary B. Huang and Manu Ramesh and Tamara Berg and 
                  Erik Learned-Miller},
  title =        {Labeled Faces in the Wild: A Database for Studying 
                  Face Recognition in Unconstrained Environments},
  institution =  {University of Massachusetts, Amherst},
  year =         2007,
  number =       {07-49},
  month =        {October}}
LFW funneled images
If you use the LFW images aligned by funneling, please cite:
Gary B. Huang, Vidit Jain, and Erik Learned-Miller.
Unsupervised joint alignment of complex images.
International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2007.

LFW deep funneled images
If you use the LFW imaged aligned by deep funneling, please cite:
Gary B. Huang, Marwan Mattar, Honglak Lee, and Erik Learned-Miller.
Learning to Align from Scratch.
Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS), 2012.
Contact:
Questions and comments can be sent to:
Gary Huang - gbhuang@cs.umass.edu
Support:
The building of the LFW database was supported by NSF CAREER Award number 0546666.
Change History:
2014/03/17
Added Face++ commercial system result* to results page.
2014/02/10
Added Aurora Computer Services commercial system result* to results page.
2014/01/09
Added VisionLabs commercial system result* to results page.
2013/12/08
Added John_Gruden_0001 labeling error to Errata.
2013/10/18
Added Cao et al.*, Cao et al.*, and Barkan et al.* to results page.
2013/10/08
Added Lei et al.* to results page.
2013/08/23
Added new deep funneled images and corresponding deep funneled superpixels for download. (CJG)
2013/08/12
Temporarily disabled deep funneled data set download. (CJG)
2013/08/09
Removed superpixel images from database gallery. Added deep funnel aligned images to database gallery. (CJG)
2013/08/08
Added deep funneled aligned image set to main page. (CJG)
2013/07/28
Added Simonyan et al.* to results page.
2013/07/13
Added Yi et al.* to results page.
2013/07/13
Added Arashloo and Kittler* to results page.
2013/06/12
Added Sharma et al.* to results page.
2013/05/12
Added Zhen et al.* to results page.
2013/05/02
Added Chen et al.* and Chen et al.* to results page.
2013/04/17
Added Anja_Paerson_0001 labeling error to Errata.
2013/03/21
Added Li et al.* to results page.
2012/08/17
Added Hussain et al.* to results page.
2012/07/18
Added Berg and Belhumeur* to results page.
2012/03/03
Added Huang et al.* to results page.
2011/12/14
Added Ying and Li* to results page.
2011/09/07
Added link to download computed attribute values for all LFW images produced by Kumar et al., on the results page.
2011/08/28
Added Seo and Milanfar* to results page.
2011/08/08
Added images of incorrectly labeled faces, in Errata.
2011/08/08
Added Taigman and Wolf* to results page.
2011/08/01
Added Jim_OBrien_0001 labeling error to Errata.
2011/07/18
Updated the results page, adding notes on the use of external training data, arranging the image-restricted method results to roughly reflect the amount of external training data used, and added specific notes on the type of external training data used for each algorithm.
2011/07/12
Added Mahmoud_Abbas_0012 labeling error to Errata.
2011/06/28
Added Yin et al.* to results page.
2011/04/28
Added superpixel segmentation files to downloads section.
2011/04/04
Added Li et al.* to results page.
2011/01/29
Added Pinto and Cox* to results page.
2010/11/17
Added link to related database: Face Detection Data set and Benchmark (FDDB).
2010/10/26
Added Nguyen and Bai* to results page.
2010/09/07
Added Michael_Schumacher_0008 labeling error to Errata.
2010/04/17
Added Cao et al.* to results page.
2010/02/08
Added Ruiz-del-Solar et al.* and unsupervised (no training data) results to results page.
2009/10/26
Added Kumar et al.* to results page.
2009/09/24
Added link to LFW-a, LFW images aligned with commercial face alignment software, from Taigman, Wolf, and Hassner, under downloads.
2009/09/02
Added Wolf et al.* to results page.
2009/08/03
Added Taigman et al.* to results page.
2009/07/02
Added Guillaumin et al.* to results page.
2009/06/24
Added Carlos_Beltran_0001 and Emmy_Rossum_0001 labeling errors to Errata.
2009/04/02
Added Pinto et al.* to results page.
2009/02/04
Added Bart_Hendricks_0001 labeling error to Errata.
2008/07/01
Updated LFW technical report with proper reference for VidTIMIT:
C. Sanderson.
Biometric Person Recognition: Face, Speech and Fusion.
VDM-Verlag, 2008.
ISBN 978-3-639-02769-3
2008/06/12
Added Errata section and listed two known labeling errors.
2008/02/04
Added funneled images and super-pixels images to person pages.
Made all funneled images available as single downloadable file.
2008/01/25
Added results page with numbers for method of Nowak and Jurie, CVPR 2007.
2007/11/21
Added revised version of technical report.
2007/11/19
Added technical report to page.
2007/11/15
Added mailing list and change history to page.